What is the aim and criteria of community based rehabilitation in India?

CBR or Community-based rehabilitation in India is the cost-effective plan of action of equalisation of social integration and opportunities for the people with disabilities (PWDs) within the community. The main objective of the CBR programme is to provide proper vocational, educational, social and health care services to the PWDs. The development and implementation of CBR must have a proper aim and criteria. They include:

Aim of community based rehabilitation in India

CBR or community base rehabilitation in India works with people with disabilities to

• Build their capacity
• Ensure equal rights and opportunities
• Address the particular needs
• Facilitate to become self-advocates

Community based rehabilitation in India gives a positive impact on the inclusion of PWD’s within a community. This programme mainly takes place in the villages directly, so neighbours, parents, and friends are all involved.

Different criteria of CBR

PWDs must be included at any level
PWDs can be included at any level in the community based rehabilitation programme at any stage, from the initial programme design to the implementation. Moreover, people with disabilities must have a proper decision-making role to give importance to participation.

Making a positive attitude
Making a positive attitude towards people with disabilities is another criteria of the community based rehabilitation programme in India. The emphasis of CBR is to motivate the community members and work with the community for PWDs

CBR must be flexible
CBR programmes should be flexible so that they can be operated at the local level and within local conditions. Local and flexible CBR programmes mainly ensure community participation & result in several programme models suited for several places.

Sensitive for women and girlchild
All CBR activities in India must be very sensitive to women and girl children. This is because women aren’t equally treated in several communities in Asia & Pacific region. Community base rehabilitation programme provides support and care to women and girl children within the community.

Providing special assistance
Another focus of the community base rehabilitation programmes in India is providing support to people having physical, psychological, mental and sensory problems. Apart from that, people with epilepsy and leprosy and other disabilities also get support from the CBR programme.

The community-based rehabilitation programme in India is mainly executed through the joint efforts of the PWDs, members of their families and community members. This programme is envisaged as an essential of offering rehabilitation to PWDs in rural areas.

3 ways to boost the rural education system in India

Approximately, 66% population in this country live in rural areas & there is a huge gap between the rural and urban education system. Several reasons are responsible for the lack of education in rural India such as poor infrastructure, less availability of schools, lack of educational awareness and more. In this circumstance, there should be found some ways to boost the quality of rural education. Let’s discuss them briefly.

3 ways to boost the rural education system in India

Well, the problems & challenges of the rural education system in this country are common. So, to fix these problems permanently, we have to find the proper ways wisely. According to the research, there are 3 ways that can be a game changer. They include

• Quality education encouragement
• By adopting modern teaching & learning technologies
• Proper infrastructure & availability of resources

Quality education enhancement

Encouraging free education is one of the most essential ways to enhance the quality of the rural education system in India. This is mainly done by developing more schools with proper resources & educational infrastructure in rural areas. The government must ensure that the number of students who want to attend educational institutes retains quality education up to the elementary level. Another major reason to encourage quality education is that parents of rural areas do not have sufficient income so they are not able to afford high school fees & drop out the school eventually.

Recent teaching technologies adoption

Recent teaching & learning technologies are crucial in imparting quality education. Today in this advanced world where new technology trends are emerging rapidly, it is important for every individual that they are upgraded with the recent technology trends. Also, the focus of rural education must be on conceptual & smart learning so that the students or children should use the applications of the new technologies.

Proper infrastructure development

Infrastructure is one of the important factors in developing the quality of rural education in this country. Apart from that, the availability of resources is another major part of quality education. Resources include laboratories, stationery, textbooks, playgrounds, benches & more. Due to lack of proper infrastructure & resources, rural schools are not able to provide adequate education to the student over years. Proper resources, as well as infrastructure, will aid in developing an objective of good quality education & retaining a good number of students in rural India.

Taking proper initiatives and organizing awareness workshops can help to boost the quality of education. The government should also create schemes & provisions to revamp the rural education systems in India by focusing on the infrastructure.

How Effective Are the Community Based Rehabilitation Programmes?

The impact evaluation as the NGO executives conduct states how effective are the community-based rehabilitation programmed. In India, non-profit organizations work towards the betterment of people suffering from disabilities. By definition, community-based rehabilitation or CBR programmes mean highly effective methods to promote the opportunities and rights of people with disabilities.
Even if Community based rehabilitation is the main way how the people with disabilities in the middle and low-income group in India get access to the needed rehabilitation services, the analysis for providing the rigorous evaluation of CBR impact on the well-being of people is scarce.

The Community based rehabilitation guidelines aim at enhancing the quality of life for people with disabilities, and it even includes leprosy-affected people. There are strong linkages existing between the leprosy programmes, and the Community based rehabilitations optimizes how medical care is beneficial and ensures leprosy-affected people have access to all the relevant services promoting inclusion and participation.

Three UN agencies have developed the CBR guidelines, namely World Health Organizations (WHO), International Labour Organization (ILO), and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 13 International Non-Governmental Organizations that are NGOs that include the Disabled People’s Organizations (DPO) are actively supporting the CBR guidelines.

As per the data collected through the stratified random sampling, it has been found that the CBR executives did control for the systematic differences between the people with disabilities. Through the propensity score matching methods have proved to be effective in controlling for the covariates at the village and individual level. As per evaluation, the programme did impact the people with disabilities’ subgroups, who are disadvantaged on various dimensions’ interests, as in access to pensions, aid appliances usage, access to the paid jobs as well as personal-practical autonomy improvements.

The observed outcome is positive, and its significant impact of the programmes to having access to the services, along with opportunities and rights of people with disabilities. The indicated results comparing the control group access to allowances and pensions, access to the paid jobs as well as the personal-practical autonomy and aid appliances that increased with praises.

The analyzed Community-based rehabilitation programmes leave behind a positive impact on the services as well as the well-being of the people with disabilities, who are in reality deprived of the interests’ outcome. The CBR guidelines form the vital steps in the promotion of CBR as the community-based inclusive development strategy. The guidelines focus on meeting the necessities like basic needs, accessing the conveniences of mainstream development initiatives, reducing poverty, inclusive community. Its overall aim is empowering the people suffering from disabilities, along with their families. Its chief focus is on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities through the application of community-based initiatives.

Major elements & outcomes of Community Based Rehabilitation in India

Community based rehabilitation or CBR is one of the most essential strategies for rehabilitation & equalisation of opportunities within the community. The CBR programme is generally implemented by people with disabilities, their families and community members. The CBR workers always get proper knowledge, support and training to manage all types of CBR activities efficiently. The aim of community based rehabilitation is to provide support to people with disabilities especially children and women within the community. In this blog, we will focus on the major elements of community based rehabilitation programmes in India.

Major objectives of CBR programmes
There are 2 main objectives of the Community Based Rehabilitation programme in India. They include:

Improve physical & mental abilities: Improving physical and mental abilities is one of the major objectives of community based rehabilitation programmes.

Protect all rights of people with disabilities: For activating the communities to promote & protect the rights of PWDs or people with disabilities by breaking the participation barriers.

Essential elements of CBR?
People with disabilities have access to CBR services that contribute to inclusion, participation as well as well being. Community members help PWDs with health care, education, vocational training, social & other essential services. CBR aims to support, promote as well as implement all types of rehabilitation programmes and activities within the community. 4 major elements of the CBR programme include –

• National support level via resource allocation, policies & coordination
• Recognition of the CBR programme requirements
• The community willingness
• The full coordination of community members

Apart from that, national policies, management structures, NGOs, special support of government ministries & shareholders are also essential elements of CBR. For addressing these rehabilitation elements, action is needed at the intermediate, district, local & national level.

Desirable outcomes of CBR

• People with disabilities generally receive an individual assessment & they are involved in the development plans.

• PWDs understand the aim of CBR programmes. Proper information about the rehabilitation services is provided to them.

• People with disabilities in India can be referred to rehabilitation programmes. The programme will fulfil their basic needs as well as requirements.

The importance of community Based Rehabilitation programmes in India is huge. It always promotes the combined effort of community workers, people with disabilities and other citizens within the community to provide equal opportunities and basic needs.

How Do the NGOs Contribute to Improve the Education Quality in Rural India?

Every Indian citizen has the right to primary education, despite living in rural or urban areas. But, if we peep into the Rural Education System in India, then the condition is indeed horrendous. Often the poor families complain their children are deprived of better education despite being meritorious as they are not financially stable.

The Indian Government has set up schools by taking the initiative for improving the literacy rate in the country. “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” launched in 2001 is among the most recognized initiative, wherein primary education has become mandatory for every citizen. At the same time, different evening schools are started for the farmers and women so they can learn the truth and do away with their ill beliefs.

The NGOs specifically work towards socio-economic factors like religious practices, economic conditions, beliefs, and hierarchical systems, and more for the betterment of rural education in India. As per Government rules and regulations, education is compulsory in the rural areas for the rural people to enhance their skills and improve their productivity – so the NGO members take steps to spread awareness regarding the benefits of education. Furthermore, they arrange for special classes in specific subjects so the students can clearly understand the subject in depth.

By arranging for free classes, distribution of books and meals, the NGO executives help the students to utilize their time in studying other than dedicating large hours working in the field or at other places for earning money. The government’s mid-day meal scheme has worked out well and the NGO members are even following the same free meal schemes for their classes. The particular objective is improving the children’s nutritional value and encouraging them to regularly attending the academic sessions. Due to this scheme, they could attract the attention of many families, and convince them to send their students for attending school.

The availability of good infrastructure is the primary need for promoting education in rural areas. Thanks to technological advancements, their efforts are not facing many challenges. By using technology, they could pace up the rural education progress rate. As a result, the children of the rural areas could learn to achieve their dreams and learn very seriously. Both the Indian Government and the NGOs are doing their best so they can provide the necessary resources to the children so they are able to prove their worth.

The NGOs take up certain CSR initiatives, which form the silver lining in elevating the status of the rural classrooms. Through their sincere efforts, they are able to bring in technology. Training the teachers, allocating the trained persons to the rural setups have indeed been boons to the rural setup.

Every Indian citizen has the right to primary education, despite living in rural or urban areas. But, if we peep into the Rural Education System in India, then the condition is indeed horrendous. Often the poor families complain their children are deprived of better education despite being meritorious as they are not financially stable.

The Indian Government has set up schools by taking the initiative for improving the literacy rate in the country. “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” launched in 2001 is among the most recognized initiative, wherein primary education has become mandatory for every citizen. At the same time, different evening schools are started for the farmers and women so they can learn the truth and do away with their ill beliefs.

The NGOs specifically work towards socio-economic factors like religious practices, economic conditions, beliefs, and hierarchical systems, and more for the betterment of rural education in India. As per Government rules and regulations, education is compulsory in the rural areas for the rural people to enhance their skills and improve their productivity – so the NGO members take steps to spread awareness regarding the benefits of education. Furthermore, they arrange for special classes in specific subjects so the students can clearly understand the subject in depth.

By arranging for free classes, distribution of books and meals, the NGO executives help the students to utilize their time in studying other than dedicating large hours working in the field or at other places for earning money. The government’s mid-day meal scheme has worked out well and the NGO members are even following the same free meal schemes for their classes. The particular objective is improving the children’s nutritional value and encouraging them to regularly attending the academic sessions. Due to this scheme, they could attract the attention of many families, and convince them to send their students for attending school.

The availability of good infrastructure is the primary need for promoting education in rural areas. Thanks to technological advancements, their efforts are not facing many challenges. By using technology, they could pace up the rural education progress rate. As a result, the children of the rural areas could learn to achieve their dreams and learn very seriously. Both the Indian Government and the NGOs are doing their best so they can provide the necessary resources to the children so they are able to prove their worth.

The NGOs take up certain CSR initiatives, which form the silver lining in elevating the status of the rural classrooms. Through their sincere efforts, they are able to bring in technology. Training the teachers, allocating the trained persons to the rural setups have indeed been boons to the rural setup.

Present scenario of rural education in India

India has the second-largest education system in the world. However, the rural part of this country is still far away from a good quality education. In this blog, we will discuss major objectives & present a scenario of the rural education system in India. We further discuss how to fix the problems of rural education.

Present scenario of the rural education system in India


Lower quality of education
Whether a student resides in a rural area or a metropolitan society, the right to education is one of the primary rights of all citizens across the nation. However, the quality of education that is provided in the rural schools is very poor as compared to the urban schools in India.

Improper infrastructure
Improper infrastructure is another major problem in rural schools. There are only a few classrooms found in such schools & they have inadequate library books, poor quality bathrooms, lack of drinking water, etc.

The objective of rural education
There are 5 major objectives of the rural education system in India. They include,

Coordination: Providing coordination is one of the major objectives of the rural education system. At the national level, coordination should be provided to the rural education activities & programs.

Provide leadership: Another major objective of rural education is leadership. To provide leadership for education-related workshops & conferences.

Provide forum: To give a forum for those who are involved in public education including administrators, teachers, non-teaching staff, board members & rural community members.

Promote delivery systems: Promoting the local, regional and state delivery systems is a major rural education system in India. It brings highly effective & efficient education for children in the rural areas.

Stimulation: Last but not the least, this objective is essential for stimulating the discussion, policy & research development regarding educational opportunities equality for rural students.

5 ways to fix these problems
The present scenario of the rural education system can be changed. 5 ways help to improve the quality of rural education. They include

  1. Empower free education
  2. Build more schools
  3. Improve the infrastructure
  4. Bring smart teaching techniques
  5. Promote computer education

The major role of a proper education system in facilitating economic & social progress is well accepted. Small initiatives can change the entire education system in rural India.

What are the major objectives of the CBR programme?

CBR or community based rehabilitation is an approach to community development that is applied for equalisation of the social integration & opportunities of people with disabilities in India. This programme is executed through the CBR members, PWDs and their families. CBR programme aims to provide support to people with disabilities within the community with proper education, vocational training, health care services & other sociological needs. In this blog, we will discuss the major objectives of the community based rehabilitation programme in India.

Improvement of the life of people with disabilities in India

One of the main objectives of community based rehabilitation in India is to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities within the community.

Involvement of PWDs at every level
People with disabilities must be involved in the CBR programme at every level or every stage that includes the initial part of the program & implementation. To provide value to the participation, the people with disabilities within the community must have basic decision making roles.

Making a positive attitude towards PWDs
Making a positive attitude towards people with disabilities is another major objective of community based rehabilitation programmes in India. Community members should be motivated to give support & encourage PWDs for involving the CBR activities.

Providing support to the PWDs who need special assistance

CBR members should provide support & guidance to the PWDs who need special assistance such as sensory, mental support, psychological assistance, physical support, etc. Moreover, old citizens, people with epilepsy & leprosy should be provided special care and support from the community members.

CBR programme must be flexible
CBR programmes in India must be flexible so that they can be operated within local conditions at any level. Community-based rehabilitation doesn’t have only one model of the community. This is because socio economic contexts & other requirements of individual communities may need several solutions. Flexible CBR programmes always ensure the participation of the community. So, flexibility is important for community based rehabilitation.

Should be sensitive to the women & girl child
All community based rehabilitation activities must be very sensitive to the women & girl child. This is because women & girls are not equally treated in some communities across Asia. The CBR members should take an initiative to take care of women & girls with disabilities.

The importance of community based rehabilitation programmes in India is huge. The approach of CBR programmes can be multi sectoral & it includes non-governmental & governmental that provides assistance.

3 Major Components And Objectives Of The CBR Programme In India

Disability is one of the major issues that should be managed very cautiously. Due to the lack of women’s safety, education, access to proper healthcare and attitudinal barriers, this disability has been made highly vulnerable. To recover all of these problems, NGOs come to the field. They are non-government organisations that play an important role in empowering people with disabilities into the social mainstream. In this blog, we are going to discuss the importance of NGO’s for disabilities in India.

Components of CBR

There are 3 major components of the Community Based Rehabilitation programme in India.

They include:

Developing positive attitudes:

Developing positive and proper attitudes towards PWDs is one of the major components of CBR programmes. This component is ideal for ensuring opportunity equalization for the people with disabilities within the community. The positive attitudes are generally developed by involving community members in the implementation and design process.

Provision of rehabilitation services:

Generally, people with disabilities in India need proper assistance and care to reduce or overcome the effect of functional disabilities. In the social communities where the professional services aren’t available or accessible, CBR workers and experts must be trained properly to give primary rehabilitation therapies in the following rehabilitation areas:

  • Medical
  • Hearing services
  • Physiotherapy
  • Psychological counselling
  • Occupational therapy
  • Eye care service
  • Orientation & mobility training
  • Speech therapy
  • Prosthetics & orthotics
  • Other devices

Provision of training and education opportunities:

People with disabilities in India have an equal right to education and training opportunities that help them to achieve success. In the communities where the appropriate educational activities are not properly available or accessible, CBR personnel must be trained to deliver the basic level of educational services in the below areas:

  • Childhood intervention & referral
  • Education in regular schools
  • Non-formal education and training where proper schooling is unavailable
  • Special schools
  • Special education in regular
  • Sign language training
  • Braille training

Importance of NGO’s for disabilities

Disability is one of the major issues that should be managed very cautiously. Due to the lack of women’s safety, education, access to proper healthcare and attitudinal barriers, this disability has been made highly vulnerable. To recover all of these problems, NGOs come to the field. They are non-government organisations that play an important role in empowering people with disabilities into the social mainstream. In this blog, we are going to discuss the importance of NGO’s for disabilities in India.

Challenges that are faced by NGO’s for disabilities

Whether it’s financial or sociological, the NGO’s for disabilities in India face a number of challenges every day. A few of them are mentioned below.

  • Financial constraints
  • High population & underdeveloped rural area
  • Improper trained personnel
  • Low interest of duty bearers
  • Disable people are not aware of their rights
  • Inappropriate political will

Role of NGO’s for disabilities

NGOs for disabilities take and execute a number of projects for promoting people with disabilities. They work properly to address several issues and concerns prevailing within the society. NGO’s are completely non-profit organisations which means they never get any type of commercial interest. They are mainly run on donations made by institutions, corporations and individuals. As we discussed above, NGO’s are key drivers of our society playing a proactive role in helping people with disabilities within the society. Apart from disabilities, they work for Child rights,

  • Social Injustice
  • Human Rights
  • Refugee Crisis
  • Women Empowerment
  • Humanitarian Relief
  • Animal Rights
  • Sanitation and Hygiene
  • Care for elderly people
  • Health & Nutrition
  • Education & Literacy
  • Wildlife Conservation
  • Poverty
  • Environment Conservation
  • Disease Control

Here are six major roles of NGOs include:

  • Operation and development of Infrastructure
  • Facilitating communication
  • Supporting innovation and demonstration
  • Facilitating communication
  • Technical Assistance and Training
  • Research, Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Advocacy with and for the Poor

Importance of NGO

NGO’s for disabilities in India take a number of cultural and social activities, most of which used to improve the socio-economic status of the community. From empowering and enabling people with disabilities to providing direct advantages such as distributing nutrition to malnourished children, the work of non-government organisations has a proactive impact in assisting deprived and underprivileged people.

The importance of NGOs for disabilities is huge. They do not only address the common issues but they also undertake major campaigning activities for generating awareness on every issue related to people with disabilities. The activities of NGOs for disabilities are social, environmental and educational.

Meeting the challenges of the rural education system in India

Approx 70% of people live in rural areas and get educated in India. Rural schools are facing a number of challenges due to a lack of quality learning opportunities and resources. These challenges affect the entire education system. In this article, we will discuss some major challenges faced by rural students in India. We further discuss, how to recover these issues.

Challenges faced by rural students in India

The entire rural education system is facing a number of challenges. As the result, rural students do not get the proper education from their schools. As compared to urban schools, fewer teachers are employed in rural schools. Apart from that, these teachers are burdened with so many unmanageable activities and works. Moreover, most of the rural schools are suffering from a lack of proper classrooms, inadequate infrastructure, and a poor learning environment. Apart from that, teachers that are employed in such schools are not good enough. Due to a lack of training and experience, they do not provide proper education to their students. These teachers have some common problems including:

  • Poor confidence
  • Lack of communication skills
  • No technical skills
  • Lack of teaching skills
  • Lack of direction

How to improve rural education systems?

If there is any challenge, there will be a solution. Here we will share some initiatives that can be effective for the rural education system in India. They include:

Make it accessible and available for all: In many rural areas across the country quality education system is not still available because of several constraints like social believe, geographical, taboos, and infrastructure-related problems. To recover this, we have to make the education system accessible & available to all.

Think beyond theoretical education: In most rural schools, the education system is limited to classrooms and textbooks only. As the result, the students do not get access to experiential learning techniques. To fix this problem, we should think beyond this theoretical or classroom education. Apart from classroom learning, we have to adopt experiential or practical learning techniques.

Equip with technology: In the era of COVID 19, the entire education system in India has been changed broadly. Nowadays, students in urban schools are continuing their education with help of technology like the internet or Wifi connection. Unfortunately, in rural parts of India, students can not continue their education due to a lack of technology. So, we should take some initiatives to improve their education system with basic technology.

Above mentioned challenges are common across the nation but these initiatives will help the rural students. In these ways, the entire system of rural education can be changed.